Thesis on 3D Interconnect Test and Characterization

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CEA-Leti publishes PhD Thesis "Test and characterization of 3D high-density interconnects" by Imed Jani.

"Compared to μ-bumps, Cu-Cu hybrid bonding provides an alternative for future scaling below 10μm pitch with improved physical properties but that generates new challenges for test and characterization; the smaller the Cu pad size, the more the fabrication and bonding defects have an important impact on yield and performance. Defects such as bonding misalignment, micro-voids and contact defects at the copper surface, can affect the electrical characteristics and the life time of 3D-IC considerably.

Moreover, test infrastructure insertion for HD 3D-ICs presents new challenges because of the high interconnects density and the area cost for test features. Hence, in this thesis work, an innovative misalignment test structure has been developed and implemented in short-loop way. The proposed approach allows to measure accurately bonding misalignment, know the misalignment direction and estimate the contact resistance. Afterwards, a theoretical study has been performed to define the most optimized DFT infrastructure depending on the minimum acceptable pitch value for a given technology node to ensure the testability of high-density 3D-ICs.
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