Exotic Photodetector News

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The papers below promise to revolutionize future image sensor technology in many different ways. Whether you believe it or not is up to you.

OSA publishes Tianjin University, China, paper "Low operating voltage monolithic stacked perovskite photodetectors for imaging applications" by Hongliang Zhao, Tengteng Li, Qingyan Li, Chengqi Ma, Jie Li, Chenglong Zheng, Yating Zhang, and Jianquan Yao.

"The monolithic stacked design is expected to solve the challenges of wiring difficulties, complex fabrication processes, and low resolution. However, a photodetector array with low operating voltage that is suitable for imaging applications has not been proposed. Here, a perovskite photodetector array with a monolithic stacked structure is proposed. The CH3NH3PbI3 photodetector has a low power consumption off-state (0 V) and on-state (−2 V) voltage, and the highest responsivity and specific detectivity of 0.39 A/W and 4.53e12 Jones at 775 nm, respectively. The rise time and decay time are 111 µs and 250 µs respectively. In addition, the imaging application shows high contrast, which provides a simple and effective way to prepare high performance perovskite imaging devices."


Science Magazine publishes North Carolina State University and KAIS paper "Mantis shrimp–inspired organic photodetector for simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging" by Ali Altaqui, Pratik Sen, Harry Schrickx, Jeromy Rech, Jin-Woo Lee, Michael Escuti, Wei You, Bumjoon J. Kim, Robert Kolbas, Brendan T. O’Connor, and Michael Kudenov.

"Combining hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging provides a powerful sensing modality with broad applications from astronomy to biology. Existing methods rely on temporal data acquisition or snapshot imaging of spatially separated detectors. These approaches incur fundamental artifacts that degrade imaging performance. To overcome these limitations, we present a stomatopod-inspired sensor capable of snapshot hyperspectral and polarization sensing in a single pixel. The design consists of stacking polarization-sensitive organic photovoltaics (P-OPVs) and polymer retarders. Multiple spectral and polarization channels are obtained by exploiting the P-OPVs’ anisotropic response and the retarders’ dispersion. We show that the design can sense 15 spectral channels over a 350-nanometer bandwidth. A detector is also experimentally demonstrated, which simultaneously registers four spectral channels and three polarization channels. The sensor showcases the myriad degrees of freedom offered by organic semiconductors that are not available in inorganics and heralds a fundamentally unexplored route for simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging."


Sandia Labs publishes a research "Design of High-Performance Photon-Number-Resolving Photodetectors Based on Coherently Interacting Nanoscale Elements" by Steve M. Young, Mohan Sarovar, and François Léonard.

"In summary, we employed a fundamental approach based on quantum master equations to identify the challenges in high performance photon number resolving photodetectors. A number of obstructions arise when attempting to achieve PNR (Photon Number Resolving) while simultaneously optimizing important metrics. Using our approach we are able to understand the reasons for these obstructions and formulate designs that circumvent them. As a result, we designed a novel detector architecture based on coherently and collectively interacting absorbing elements, energy transfer, and a continuous monitoring process, that is able to achieve PNR as well as excellent performance in terms of efficiency, dark counts, bandwidth, and count rate. The needed physical properties of this architecture suggest that molecular and nanoscale systems are prime candidates to realize new generations of photodetectors."


Applied Physics Letters publishes a paper "Monolithic infrared silicon photonics: The rise of (Si)GeSn semiconductors" by O. Moutanabbir,  S. Assali,  X. Gong,  E. O'Reilly,  C. A. Broderick,  B. Marzban,  J. Witzens,  W. Du, S-Q. Yu,  A. Chelnokov,  D. Buca, and  D. Nam from École Polytechnique de Montréal, National University of Singapore, University College Cork,  RWTH Aachen University, Wilkes University, University of Arkansas, University Grenoble Alpes, Peter Gruenberg Institute, and Nanyang Technological University.

"(Si)GeSn semiconductors are finally coming of age after a long gestation period. The demonstration of device-quality epi-layers and quantum-engineered heterostructures has meant that tunable all-group IV Si-integrated infrared photonics is now a real possibility. Notwithstanding the recent exciting developments in (Si)GeSn materials and devices, this family of semiconductors is still facing serious limitations that need to be addressed to enable reliable and scalable applications. The main outstanding challenges include the difficulty to grow high-crystalline quality layers and heterostructures at the desired content and lattice strain, preserve the material integrity during growth and throughout device processing steps, and control doping and defect density. Other challenges are related to the lack of optimized device designs and predictive theoretical models to evaluate and simulate the fundamental properties and performance of (Si)GeSn layers and heterostructures. This Perspective highlights key strategies to circumvent these hurdles and hopefully bring this material system to maturity to create far-reaching opportunities for Si-compatible infrared photodetectors, sensors, and emitters for applications in free-space communication, infrared harvesting, biological and chemical sensing, and thermal imaging."

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Canon EOS R5 fw v1.3 update

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In March 2021, Canon released new firmware for the Canon EOS R5, R6 and 1Dx Mark III which brings a selection of updates. In this article and video I'll show you what's new!…

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Canon EOS R5 fw v1.3 update

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In March 2021, Canon released new firmware for the Canon EOS R5, R6 and 1Dx Mark III which brings a selection of updates. In this article and video I'll show you what's new!…

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Infineon Posts Chart Explaining ToF Camera Design Tasks

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Infineon publishes a chart explaining 3D camera design tasks beyond a ToF sensor:

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NHK Presentation on 8K Organic Sensor Camera

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NHK presented its organic image sensor-based camera for 8K TV broadcast (2019 presentation):



For those of you with IEEE SSCS account access, there is also Panasonic webinar by Kazuko Nishimura on organic image sensor.

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Canon Presents X-Ray Sensor With Auto-Exposure Control

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Canon announces the new "Built-in AEC assistance" technology for digital radiography. With this technology, the device's X-ray image sensor uses real-time detection of the pixel value corresponding to emitted X-rays, notifying the X-ray generator when pixel value reaches a preset value.

In clinical environments, X-ray imaging is conducted with various precautions in accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle of radiation safety, which states that the use of radiation must, among other factors, "take into account benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations." The AEC technology enables operators to specify a pixel value and automatically send a notification to the X-ray generator. When that value is reached, eliminating the need for a dedicated external attachment and enabling the automatic stopping of X-ray emissions from the X-ray generator.

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Samsung Presents AI-based Bad Pixel Detection

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Springer publishes a Samsung paper presented at 2020 International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing "A Pre-processing Assisted Neural Network for Dynamic Bad Pixel Detection in Bayer Images" by Girish Kalyanasundaram, Puneet Pandey, and Manjit Hota.

"CMOS image sensor cameras are integral part of modern hand held devices. Traditionally, CMOS image sensors are affected by many types of noises which reduce the quality of image generated. These spatially and temporally varying noises alter the pixel intensities, leading to corrupted pixels, also known as “bad” pixels. The proposed method uses a simple neural network approach to detect such bad pixels on a Bayer sensor image so that it can be corrected and overall image quality can be improved. The results show that we are able to achieve a defect miss rate of less than 0.045% with the proposed method."

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ISSCC 2021 On-Line: Samsung ISOCELL Vizion 33D Paper

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 Samsung ISOCELL Vizion presentation at ISSCC 2021 details the company iToF approach: "7.1 - A 4-tap 3.5μm 1.2Mpixel Indirect Time-of-Flight CMOS Image Sensor with Peak Current Mitigation and Multi-User Interference Cancellation" by Min-Sun Keel, Daeyun Kim, Yeomyung Kim, Myunghan Bae, Myoungoh Ki, Bumsik Chung, Sooho Son, Hoyong Lee, Heeyoung Jo, Seung-Chul Shin, Sunjoo Hong, Jaeil An, Yonghun Kwon, Sungyoung Seo, Sunghyuck Cho, Youngchan Kim, Young-Gu Jin, Youngsun Oh, Yitae Kim, JungChak Ahn, Kyoungmin Koh, and Yongin Park.

I'm not sure what 33D means in the presentation:

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ISSCC 2021 On-Line: Sony Sensor with Integrated AI Processor

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Sony ISSCC presentation "9.6 - A 1/2.3inch 12.3Mpixel with On-Chip 4.97TOPS/W CNN Processor Back-Illuminated Stacked CMOS Image Sensor" by Ryoji Eki, Satoshi Yamada, Hiroyuki Ozawa, Hitoshi Kai, Kazuyuki Okuike, Hareesh Gowtham, Hidetomo Nakanishi, Edan Almog, Yoel Livne, Gadi Yuval, Eli Zyss, and Takashi Izawa explains the trade-offs of such a product:

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GPixel Presents its Pipelined Readout Scheme

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IEICE Electronics Express publishes GPixel paper "A pipeline row operation method of CMOS image sensors" by Yang Li, Chao Fu, Tao Jiang, Yang Liu, Cheng Ma, Jan Bogaerts, Xinyang Wang.

"In this paper, we present a pixel array operation method of CMOS image sensor that enables pipeline processing of pixel operations. The sensor frame rate constraint from the delay of pixel array control lines is much relieved by manipulating control phases of adjacent pixel rows simultaneously. An analog frontend readout circuit is proposed to support the row pipeline operation pixel readout. A prototype image sensor was designed with its performance characterized and analyzed."

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LiDAR Technology Map

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EETimes reporter Junko Yoshida publishes an article "Lidar Sweepstakes Draws 15 RFQs, But No Frontrunner."

"More than a dozen RFQs for lidars are reportedly flying around. Evidently, lidars are beginning to penetrate the ADAS market. Automotive industry observers, however, caution not to expect a single lidar supplier to win this sweepstakes.

“When we recently interviewed lidar companies, they told us that every OEM and Tier One has different requirements — demanding a specific field of view, distance and position to integrate lidars in a vehicle,” Pierrick Boulay, solid state lighting and lighting systems analyst at Yole Développement, told EE Times.

Yole put FMCW in the R&D bin, calling it “TBD” — to be determined. Boulay said “We do not expect to see FMCW lidars before 2025.” Last year, Waymo talked about FMCW for its future home-grown lidars. Mobileye, most prominently, discussed FMCW early this year, describing it as its choice for lidars under development for fully autonomous vehicles."

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XFAB Presents Photodiode Improvements, Reports 20% Smartphone ALS Market Share

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X-FAB Foundries unveils a new photodiode-specific process core module. Whereas previously the XS018 process had been mainly focused on the fabrication of multi-pixel CMOS image sensors, this new module is dedicated to photodiode fabrication. 

Through this module, X-FAB offers six different photodiode options. These cover wavelengths from UV to NIR. The new photodiodes are capable of delivering best-in-class UV sensitivity, attaining 40% QE in the UVA band, 50-60% QE in the UVB band, and over 60% QE in the UVC band. At 850 nm the photodiodes have 17% greater QE than legacy devices based on the original XH018 process, and at 905 nm there is a 5% QE increase witnessed. With a QE of approximately 90%, the human eye response option is highly suited to ambient light sensing applications. 

A unique feature means that photodiode responsivity can be stipulated, via specifying the size of the metal aperture. The output current of the photodiode is thereby scalable between full current and no current – in order that any differences caused by filtering can be compensated for. This in turn simplifies the accompanying amplification circuitry for photodiode arrays. Other enhancements include a 10% increase in the fill factor compared to devices based on the earlier XH018 generation.

Through ongoing investment, X-FAB has built up strong optoelectronic credentials. Among the proof points of this is the fact that over 20% of mobile phone handsets manufactured worldwide feature an ambient light sensor that was produced by us,” states Luigi Di Capua, VP of Product Marketing at X-FAB. “Thanks to the advances we have announced in relation to our photodiode offering, we will now be better positioned to address client demands for proximity sensing, spectral analysis and optical distance/triangulation measurement solutions.

The six photodiodes are available now.

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Rudolf Schwarte, Father of Photonic Mixer Device, Died at the Age of 82

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University of Siegen, Germany, and the Center for Sensor Systems (ZESS) mourn for Prof. Dr. Rudolf Schwarte death on March, 7, 2021, at the age of 82.

In 1981 he accepted the call as a professor at the Institute for Telecommunications at the University of Siegen, where he taught and researched as head of the institute until 2007. In 1988 he founded the “Interdisciplinary Center for Sensor Systems NRW (ZESS)”, a focal point of today’s sensor research in Siegen, and was also its chairman until 1998.

He is considered the father of “fast” 3D vision and is the inventor of the Photonic Mixer Device (PMD) technology, which forms the technological basis of various spin-offs from ZESS (S-Tec and today’s successful company PMD-Technologies). He received several patents for this development and was nominated for the Research and Innovation Prize of the Federal Republic of Germany. With more than 50 patents, Prof. Schwarte was one of the world’s leading researchers in his discipline. In 1995 and 1997, the state government of North Rhine-Westphalia awarded him the innovation prize.

In 2005 he was awarded the Cross of Merit 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany by the Secretary of State for Science, Hartmut Krebs.

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Call for Nominations for the 2021 Walter Kosonocky Award

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International Image Sensor Society Call for Nominations for the 2021 Walter Kosonocky Award for Significant Advancement in Solid-State Image Sensors:

The Walter Kosonocky Award is presented biennially for THE BEST PAPER presented in any venue during the prior two years representing significant advancement in solid-state image sensors. The award commemorates the many important contributions made by the late Dr. Walter Kosonocky to the field of solid-state image sensors. Personal tributes to Dr. Kosonocky appeared in the IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices in 1997.

Founded in 1997 by his colleagues in industry, government and academia, the award is also funded by proceeds from the International Image Sensor Workshop. (See International Image Sensor Society’s website for detail and past recipients)

The award is selected from nominated papers by the Walter Kosonocky Award Committee, announced and presented at the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW), and sponsored by the International Image Sensor Society (IISS). The winner is presented with a certificate, complementary registration to the IISW, and an honorarium.

Please send us an email nomination for this year's award, with a pdf file of the nominated paper (that you judge is the best paper published/ presented in calendar years 2019 and 2020) as well as a brief description (less than 100 words) of your reason nominating the paper. Nomination of a paper from your company/ institute is also welcome.

The deadline for receiving nominations is April 26th, 2021.

Your nominations should be sent to Rihito Kuroda (2021nominations@imagesensors.org), Chair of the IISS Award Committee.

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Yet Another Auto-Generated Image Sensor Paper

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MDPI publishes a paper "Human Body-Related Disease Diagnosis Systems Using CMOS Image Sensors: A Systematic Review" by Suparshya Babu Sukhavasi, Susrutha Babu Sukhavasi, Khaled Elleithy, Shakour Abuzneid, and Abdelrahman Elleithy from University of Bridgeport, CT, and William Paterson University, NJ. This time, the authors were pretty open about the process how this paper has been generated:

"This systematic review used PRISMA workflow for study selection methodology, and the parameter-based evaluation is performed on disease diagnosis systems related to the human body’s organs. The corresponding CIS models used in systems are mapped organ-wise, and the data collected over the last decade are tabulated."

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Yet Another Auto-Generated Image Sensor Paper

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MDPI publishes a paper "Human Body-Related Disease Diagnosis Systems Using CMOS Image Sensors: A Systematic Review" by Suparshya Babu Sukhavasi, Susrutha Babu Sukhavasi, Khaled Elleithy, Shakour Abuzneid, and Abdelrahman Elleithy from University of Bridgeport, CT, and William Paterson University, NJ. This time, the authors are pretty open about the process of the paper creation:

"This systematic review used PRISMA workflow for study selection methodology, and the parameter-based evaluation is performed on disease diagnosis systems related to the human body’s organs. The corresponding CIS models used in systems are mapped organ-wise, and the data collected over the last decade are tabulated."

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ISSCC 2021 Presentations On-Line: Mojo Vision’s Augmented-Reality Smart Contact Lens

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One of the most inspiring presentations at ISSCC 2021 is Mojo Visions "34.2 - A 21pJ/frame/pixel Imager and 34pJ/frame/pixel Image Processor for a Low-Vision Augmented-Reality Smart Contact Lens." 

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Strategy Analytics: Market Share Gap between Sony and Others is Shrinking

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BusinessWire. Strategy Analytics publishes the  report “Smartphone Image Sensor Market Share Q4 2020: Sony Takes Top Spot But Sees Drop in Share:”

"The global smartphone Image sensor market recorded total revenue of $15 billion in CY 2020.

The overall smartphone image sensor market experienced a revenue growth of 13 percent year-over-year in 2020. Sony managed to take the first position in the smartphone image sensor market with 46 percent revenue share followed by Samsung System LSI and OmniVision Technologies in CY 2020. The top-three vendors captured almost 85 percent revenue share in the global smartphone image sensor market in 2020. The major CIS vendors drove the sales of high-resolution image sensors to customers.

Jeffrey Mathews, Senior Analyst at Strategy Analytics says, “The pandemic did little to dent the image sensor market growth as CIS vendors observed strong demand from smartphone OEMs who aggressively adopted high-resolution sensors and higher sensor count across smartphone tiers in 2020. Samsung, OmniVision and SK Hynix continued to take share from Sony as the vendor lost key business owing to sanctions on Huawei. We expect Sony’s market dominance will be increasingly threatened by the rising competition in the smartphone image sensor market.

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Unispectral Announces IR Spectral Camera

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Unispectral launches its new Monarch spectral IR camera. Monarch is said to be the first low-SWaP (size, weight & power) spectral camera on the market, suitable for immediate use or by integration in OEM platforms or application developers. 

The low-cost Monarch simplifies spectral imaging and eliminates the need for expensive, bulky, complicated and sensitive equipment, or limited spectrometers. Monarch consists of the Unispectral proprietary tunable Fabry–Pérot filter (μFPF), integrated with a miniature IR camera module, all fit into a slim 60x40x14.5mm, 30gr camera. For operation, controls and display. The camera captures and immediately outputs multiple detailed, single-band, NIR images within the 680nm-940nm wavelengths spectral range.

Ariel Raz, CEO of Unispectral said, “Today we rollout the first mass-market spectral camera. With the Monarch, Unispectral creates a brand-new market segment of spectral IR imaging for agriculture and other industries. The 30-gram camera works anywhere, in conjunction with Android Smartphones or PC.

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Sony FE 24mm f2.8 G review

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The Sony FE 24mm f2.8 G is a compact wide-angle prime lens for the e-mount mirrorless system. 24mm is a popular focal length, striking a very usable balance between 28mm and ultra-wide models. The 24 2.8 G delivers sharp results and fast focusing from a compact weather-sealed barrel. Find out if it’s the perfect wide prime for you in my review!…

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Sony FE 40mm f2.5 G review

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The Sony FE 40mm f2.5 G is a compact lightweight prime lens designed for full-frame e-mount mirrorless cameras. 40mm delivers slightly wider than standard coverage, striking a compelling balance between traditional 35 and 50mm lenses. In my full review find out why it could be your next standard lens!…

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Smartsens Unveils 4MP 2.9um Pixel Sensor from AI Family

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SmartSens launches a 4MP sensor in its Advanced Imaging (AI) Series - 1/1.8-inch SC450AI featuring 2.9um pixel. The sensor is aimed to security cameras with embedded intelligence:

"According to the latest forecast report of the well-known market research company Omdia, although only 16% of cameras are equipped with AI-related technologies in 2020, it is expected that the number of AI cameras for security surveillance alone will surge by 58% by 2024, based on AI technology in the future The all-weather intelligent vision IoT system will do a lot.

Smartsens SC450AI using innovative process excellent high temperature can significantly improve the imaging performance of the CIS, in a high temperature environment of 80 deg. C, the resulting dark current with the specifications of other products than 51% reduction , while reducing 82% of the white point , so that The all-weather IoT AI camera smart vision device can continuously operate in a high temperature environment with better imaging status."

The new sensor is sampling now.

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Sony FE 50mm f2.5 G review

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The Sony FE 50mm f2.5 G is a compact standard prime lens for full-frame e-mount mirrorless cameras. Announced in March 2021 and costing $599, it delivers natural-looking standard coverage that’s ideal for general-purpose use. Long enough for simple portraits and small group shots, but short enough for some natural and urban views, and a practical…

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Mass Market SWIR Spectroscopy is Coming?

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TI publishes a video showing the difference in SWIR spectra between different foods:


TrinamiX publishes a couple of videos demoing its SWIR spectrometer capabilities and applications:

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Quantum Dot Phototransistor for Neuromorphic Sensor

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Nature publishes a paper "A flexible ultrasensitive optoelectronic sensor array for neuromorphic vision systems" by Qian-Bing Zhu, Bo Li, Dan-Dan Yang, Chi Liu, Shun Feng, Mao-Lin Chen, Yun Sun, Ya-Nan Tian, Xin Su, Xiao-Mu Wang, Song Qiu, Qing-Wen Li, Xiao-Ming Li, Hai-Bo Zeng, Hui-Ming Cheng & Dong-Ming Sun from Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei University of Science and Technology of China, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shenyang Northeastern University, Nanjing University, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, and Tsinghua University.

"The challenges of developing neuromorphic vision systems inspired by the human eye come not only from how to recreate the flexibility, sophistication, and adaptability of animal systems, but also how to do so with computational efficiency and elegance. Similar to biological systems, these neuromorphic circuits integrate functions of image sensing, memory and processing into the device, and process continuous analog brightness signal in real-time. High-integration, flexibility and ultra-sensitivity are essential for practical artificial vision systems that attempt to emulate biological processing. Here, we present a flexible optoelectronic sensor array of 1024 pixels using a combination of carbon nanotubes and perovskite quantum dots as active materials for an efficient neuromorphic vision system. The device has an extraordinary sensitivity to light with a responsivity of 5.1e7 A/W and a specific detectivity of 2e16 Jones, and demonstrates neuromorphic reinforcement learning by training the sensor array with a weak light pulse of 1 μW/cm2."

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ISSCC 2021 Presentations On-Line: Sony FF Sensor with Sigma-Delta ADC

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It appears that all ISSCC 2021 videos, slides, and demos are available at underline.io site after a free registration. According to ISSCC, the presentation at Underline site are available till the end of March.

The slides below are from the presentation of Sony full-frame sensor with sigma-delta ADC and kTC noise reduction: "7.6 - A High-Speed Back-Illuminated Stacked CMOS Image Sensor with Column-Parallel kT/C-Cancelling S&H and Delta-Sigma ADC" by Chihiro Okada.

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IISW 2021 Announces the First Invited Paper

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International Image Sensor Workshop 2021 announces a name of the first invited paper: “Sensor Design Parameters Affecting Automotive Machine Vision” by Gabriel Bowers, Image Path Architect and Strategy at Mobileye.

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Almalence Extends its Superresolution Mode to Video

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Almalence publishes a demo of its SuperResolution and SNR boost in real-time at video frame rates:

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Ametek 1MP 76,000fps Sensor Whitepaper

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Ametek Vision Research publishes a white paper "Understanding How A BSI Sensor Has Advanced High-Speed Imaging" about 1280x720 pixel 76,000fps device powering TMX series of cameras. Few quotes:

"Embedding analog-to-digital converters (ADC) on CMOS image sensors is standard practice, but the BSI sensor’s speed required a massive increase in the amount of ADC. While modern CMOS image sensors typically have between 1,000 and 10,000 embedded ADC, the new BSI high-speed sensor has 40,000 ADC, each converting every 523 ns and generating a large amount of data to off-load from the sensor. To accomplish this task, it incorporates 160 high-speed serial outputs operating at greater than 5 Gbps. This technology is common on CPUs and FPGAs but new on a high-speed imaging sensor.

The density of ADC on the new sensor did create power management and electrical crosstalk challenges, which were solved with the help of our design and integrated production partner, Forza Silicon.

...testing of early designs revealed a higher level of ADC crosstalk in both normal imaging and binning modes than our simulation tools had predicted, causing noticeable artifacts in the images. Forza engineers discovered that the crosstalk exhibited predictable patterns and developed modeling techniques that helped us eliminate the crosstalk altogether, which in turn mitigated imaging artifacts.
"

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Ametek 1MP 76,000fps Sensor Whitepaper

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Ametek Vision Research publishes a white paper "Understanding How A BSI Sensor Has Advanced High-Speed Imaging" about 1280x720 pixel 76,000fps device powering TMX series of cameras. Few quotes:

"Embedding analog-to-digital converters (ADC) on CMOS image sensors is standard practice, but the BSI sensor’s speed required a massive increase in the amount of ADC. While modern CMOS image sensors typically have between 1,000 and 10,000 embedded ADC, the new BSI high-speed sensor has 40,000 ADC, each converting every 523 ns and generating a large amount of data to off-load from the sensor. To accomplish this task, it incorporates 160 high-speed serial outputs operating at greater than 5 Gbps. This technology is common on CPUs and FPGAs but new on a high-speed imaging sensor.

The density of ADC on the new sensor did create power management and electrical crosstalk challenges, which were solved with the help of our design and integrated production partner, Forza Silicon.

...testing of early designs revealed a higher level of ADC crosstalk in both normal imaging and binning modes than our simulation tools had predicted, causing noticeable artifacts in the images. Forza engineers discovered that the crosstalk exhibited predictable patterns and developed modeling techniques that helped us eliminate the crosstalk altogether, which in turn mitigated imaging artifacts.
"

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