CMOS SPAD SoC for Fluorescence Imaging

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Hot off the press! An article titled "A High Dynamic Range 128 x 120 3-D Stacked CMOS SPAD Image Sensor SoC for Fluorescence Microendoscopy" from the research group at The University of Edinburgh and STMicroelectronics is now available for early access in the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits.

A miniaturized 1.4 mm x 1.4 mm, 128 x 120 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensor with a five-wire interface is designed for time-resolved fluorescence microendoscopy. This is the first endoscopic chip-on-tip sensor capable of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The sensor provides a novel, compact means to extend the photon counting dynamic range (DR) by partitioning the required bit depth between in-pixel counters and off-pixel noiseless frame summation. The sensor is implemented in STMicroelectronics 40-/90-nm 3-D-stacked backside-illuminated (BSI) CMOS process with 8-μm pixels and 45% fill factor. The sensor capabilities are demonstrated through FLIM examples, including ex vivo human lung tissue, obtained at video rate.

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